Abstracts of scientific research papers investigating the absence or presence of psychedelic tryptamines in psychiatrically labelled and psychiatrically unlabelled populations, including speculations on the significance of findings, emphasizing the usual pathological paradigm.
CARPENTER, WILLIAM T; FINK, EDWARD B; NARASIMHACHARI, NEDATHUR; HIMWICH, HAROLD
A test of the transmethylation hypothesis in acute schizophrenic patients.
American Journal of Psychiatry; 1975 Oct Vol 132(10) 1067-1071
An investigation of 3 aspects of the transmethylation hypothesis found that 26 acutely schizophrenic patients were no more likely to have bufotenine or N,N-dimethyltryptamine present in urine or elevated serum indolethylamine N-methyltransferase activity than 10 normal controls. It is concluded that these are naturally occurring substances.
CHECKLEY, STUART A; ET AL
A longitudinal study of urinary excretion of N,N- dimethyltryptamine in psychotic patients.
British Journal of Psychiatry; 1980 Sep Vol 137 236-239
Ss were 9 patients who had schizophrenic and manic-depressive illnesses. The excretion of N,N,-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) was frequently raised in the Ss when they were psychotic but was usually normal when they had recovered. Rapid changes in the severity of illness or sudden switches from one mood state to another were not accompanied by changes in excretion of DMT. Findings contrast with the immediate hallucinogenic effects of an injection of DMT and suggest that the extracerebral production of DMT (as measured by its urinary excretion) does not provoke the experience of hallucinations in psychotic patients.
CORBETT, L; ET AL
Hallucinogenic N-methylated indolealkylamines in the cerebrospinal fluid of psychiatric and control populations.
British Journal of Psychiatry; 1978 Feb Vol 132 139-144
Studied the incidence and quantities of dimethyltryptamine and O-methyl-bufotenine in the cerebrospinal fluid of 50 patients with acute schizophrenic illnesses and in 34 surgical and 16 neurological controls. Results show that some schizophrenics had higher levels of both amines than did controls, although the differences in distribution did not reach statistical significance.
FAURBYE, ARILD; PIND, K
The presence of N-methylated and N-acetylated indole amines in the urine of schizophrenics and controls.
Foreign Psychiatry; 1973 Sum Vol. 2(2) 3-10
Used gas and thin-layer chromatography to test for the presence of 3 toxic amines in the urine of 4 female schizophrenics and 3 female nurses. The amines found in the urine of both groups were dimethyltryptamine, (DMT), bufotenine, and 5-methoxy-N,N- dimethyltryptamine (5-MODMT). These amines may, therefore, be regarded as normal metabolic products. It is noted that DMT can produce schizophreniform symptoms in humans. Data is presented suggesting that the effects of 5-MODMT are similar to those of DMT and that 5-MODMT may be a more potent drug. Difficulties in determining the specific amine content in urine are noted.
HELLER B; FISCHER E; SPATZ H
N,N-dimethyltryptamine like substance in rat brain.
Life Sciences; 1973 Aug Vol. 13(4) 313-316
Used bidimensional thin layer and gas chromatography with 10 male Wistar rats to demonstrate that rat brain contains 8 mg/g of a tertiary amine, very probably N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Pretreatment with nialamide did not modify the concentration of this substance in the brain.
RODNIGHT, R; ET AL
Urinary dimethyltryptamine and psychiatric symptomatology and classification.
Psychological Medicine; 1976 Nov Vol 6(4) 649-657
Studied the excretion of dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in 122 recently admitted psychiatric patients and 20 normal Ss. DMT was detected in the urine of 47% of those diagnosed by their psychiatrists as schizophrenic, 38% of those with other nonaffective psychoses, 13% of those with affective psychoses, 19% of those with neurotic and personality disorders, and 5% of the normal Ss. 99 of the patients were interviewed in a semistandardized fashion, and also categorized according to a variety of operational definitions of the psychoses. The operational definitions failed to reveal any group significantly more correlated with urinary DMT than did the hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia, but a discriminant function analysis of symptomatology could be used to define a group of 21 patients of whom 15 (71%) excreted detectable DMT. There was a general relationship between psychotic symptoms and urinary DMT, but specifically schizophrenic symptoms did not appear to be major determinants of DMT excretion.
SITARAM BR; MCLEOD WR
Observations on the metabolism of the psychotomimetic indolealkylamines: implications for future clinical studies.
Biol Psychiatry. 1990 Nov 15; 28(10): 841-8
Although the psychotomimetic indolealkylamines N,N-dimethyltryptamine, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, and 5-hydroxy-N,N- dimethyltryptamine have been unequivocally identified in human body fluids, evidence relating their concentration to the presence of psychotic illness in humans remains controversial. A series of studies on the metabolism of the compounds in the rat have highlighted the rapidity and with which these are metabolized and renally excreted. The implications of our observation for the interpretation of past clinical studies and the design of future ones is discussed.
WYATT, R J,; ET AL
Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric isotope dilution determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine concentrations in normals and psychiatric patients.
Psychopharmacologia; 1973 Vol. 31(3) 265-270
Conducted a g as chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of the plasma N,N-dimethyltryptamine concentration from 8 male and 3 female normals and 19 male and 10 female psychiatric patients (psychotically depressed, chronic and acute schizophrenics). Results show that within the limit of sensitivity of assay (.5-1.8 ng/ml of plasma), there was no difference among the Ss.
WYATT, RICHARD J,; ET AL
The dimethyltryptamine-forming enzyme in blood platelets: A study in monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia.
American Journal of Psychiatry; 1973 Dec Vol. 130(12) 1359-1361
Assayed samples of the nondialyzed platelets of 14 pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia for their ability to form enzymatically the hallucinogen dimethyltryptamine. The schizophrenic twins had higher mean levels of enzyme activity than their nonschizophrenic cotwins, whose mean level of enzyme activity was equal to that of 22 normal nontwin control Ss. This finding suggests that the higher levels of enzyme activity found in schizophrenics is produced by their environment and is not genetically determined.
WYATT, RICHARD J; SAAVEDRA, JUAN M; AXELROD, JULIUS
A dimethyltryptamine-forming enzyme in human blood.
American Journal of Psychiatry; 1973 Jul Vol. 130(7) 754-760
Conducted a test with 112 Ss, distributed among normal adults, alcoholic patients, psychotic depressives, and acute and chronic schizophrenics. An enzyme capable of forming the hallucinogen dimethyltryptamine was found in Ss' red blood cells, plasma, and platelets. Enzyme activity in red blood cells and plasma was not significantly different in psychiatric Ss from that in normals. Enzyme activity in platelets was higher in psychotic Ss than in nonpsychotics and was apparently related to the presence of a dialyzable inhibitor in the normal Ss.
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