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  8. Pi / Holding Together [union]

above  K'AN

below  K'UN

The waters on the surface of the earth flow together wherever they can, as for 
example in the ocean, where all the rivers come together. Symbolically this 
connotes holding together and the laws that regulate it. The same idea is 
suggested by the fact that all the lines of the hexagram except the fifth, the 
place of the ruler, are yielding. The yielding lines hold together because they 
are influenced by a man of strong will in the leading position, a man who is 
their center of union. Moreover, this strong and guiding personality in turn 
holds together with the others, finding in them the complement of his own 


	HOLDING TOGETHER brings good fortune.
	Inquire of the oracle once again
	Whether you possess sublimity, constancy, and perseverance;
	Then there is no blame.
	Those who are uncertain gradually join.
	Whoever come too late
	Meets with misfortune.

What is required is that we unite with others, in order that all may 
complement and aid one another through holding together. But such 
holding together calls for a central figure around whom other persons may 
unite. To become a center of influence holding people together is a grave 
matter and fraught with great responsibility. It requires greatness of spirit, 
consistency, and strength. Therefore let him who wishes to gather others 
about him ask himself whether he is equal to the undertaking, for anyone 
attempting the task without a real calling for it only makes confusion worse 
than if no union at all had taken place.

  But when there is a real rallying point, those who at first are hesitant or 
uncertain gradually come in of their own accord. Late-comers must suffer the 
consequences, for in holding together the question of the right time is also 
important. Relationships are formed and firmly established according to 
definite inner laws. Common experiences strengthen these ties, and he who 
comes too late to share in these basic experiences must suffer for it if, as a 
straggler, he finds the door locked.

  If a man has recognized the necessity for union and does not feel strong 
enough to function as the center, it is his duty to become a member of some 
other organic fellowship.


	On the earth is water:
	Thus the kings of antiquity
	Bestowed the different states as fiefs
	And cultivated friendly relations
	With the feudal lords.

Water fills up all the empty places on the earth and clings fast to it. The social 
organization of ancient China was based on this principle of the holding 
together of dependents and rulers. Water flows to unite with water, because 
all parts of it are subject to the same laws. So too should human society hold 
together through a community of interests that allows each individual to feel 
himself a member of a whole. The central power of a social organization 
must see to it that every member finds that his true interest lies in holding 
together with it, as was the case in the paternal relationship between king and 
vassals in ancient China.


THE LINES Six at the beginning means: Hold to him in truth and loyalty; This is without blame. Truth, like a full earthen bowl" Thus in the end Good fortune comes from without. Fundamental sincerity is the only proper basis for forming relationships. This attitude, symbolized by a full earthen bowl, in which the content is everything and the empty form nothing, shows itself not in clever words but through the strength of what lies within the speaker. This strength is so great that it has power to attract good fortune to itself from without. Six in the second place means: Hold to him inwardly. Perseverance brings good fortune. If a person responds perseveringly and in the right way to the behests from above that summon him to action, his relations with others are intrinsic and he does not lose himself. But if a man seeks association with others as if he were an obsequious office hunter, he throws himself away. He does not follow the path of the superior man, who never loses his dignity. Six in the third place means: You hold together with the wrong people. We are often among people who do not belong to our own sphere. In that case we must beware of being drawn into false intimacy through force of habit. Needless to say, this would have evil consequences. Maintaining sociability without intimacy is the only right attitude toward people, because otherwise we should not be free to enter into relationship with people of our own kind later on. Six in the fourth place means: Hold to him outwardly also. Perseverance brings good fortune. Here the relations with a man who is the center of union are well established. Then we may, and indeed we should, show our attachment openly. But we must remain constant and not allow ourselves to be led astray. Nine in the fifth place means: Manifestation of holding together. In the hunt the king uses beaters on three sides only And forgoes game that runs off in front. The citizens need no warning. Good fortune. In the royal hunts of ancient China it was customary to drive up the game from three sides, but on the fourth the animals had a chance to run off. If they failed to do this they had to pass through a gate behind which the king stood ready to shoot. Only animals that entered here were shot; those that ran off in front were permitted to escape. This custom accorded with a kingly attitude; the royal hunter did not wish to turn the chase into a slaughter, but held that the kill should consist only of those animals which had so to speak voluntarily exposed themselves. There is depicted here a ruler, or influential man, to whom people are attracted. Those who come to him he accepts, those who do not come are allowed to go their own way. He invited none, flatters none—all come of their own free will. In this way there develops a voluntary dependence among those who hold him. They do not have to be constantly on their guard but may express their opinions openly. Police measures are not necessary, and they cleave to their ruler of their own volition. The same principle of freedom is valid for life in general. We should not woo favor from people. If a man cultivates within himself the purity and the strength that are necessary for one who is the center of a fellowship, those who are meant for him come of their own accord. Six at the top means: He finds no head for holding together. Misfortune. The head is the beginning. If the beginning is not right, there is no hope of a right ending. If we have missed the right moment for union and go on hesitating to give complete and full devotion, we shall regret the error when it is too late.


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